White papers

Industrial control solutions

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Remote Telemetry and Remote Maintenance

The water/wastewater system manager’s guide to remote telemetry and remote maintenance

This white paper will provide the reader with a practical selection guide to the communication mechanisms and media for remote maintenance and remote control technology that are relevant to them.

Power line carrier communication: Is it suitable when human safety is critical?

Power line carrier communication: Is it suitable when human safety is critical?

Power line carrier communications (PLCC) can be useful in non-critical applications. However, in applications where human safety is a priority, PLCC presents many challenges. 

SCADA, IIoT, M2M and more

SCADA, IIoT, M2M and more

How many buzzwords do you need to monitor your remote pump station?

Functional specification for a typical onshore wellhead control and monitoring system

Functional specification for a typical onshore wellhead control and monitoring system

This document specifies the requirements for a control and monitoring system for an onshore low-pressure, lower-temperature oil and gas wellhead.

What makes a soft PLC?

What makes a soft PLC?

This Technical Brief provides an introduction to “soft” control systems and real-time computing with an emphasis on PC-based control systems.

WIN XP -- Don't Get Left Behind

WIN XP -- Don't get left behind

Support for Windows XP will expire in April 2014, so now is the time to plan ahead.

Streamlining Control Program Implementation and Modification Using the IEC 61131-3 Programming Model

Streamlining control program implementation and modification using the IEC 61131-3 programming model

Programming a control system represents a major portion of the non-recurring engineering costs for a new system. Modular programming structures and components exist in most commonly available control system configuration and programming packages. Those provided by the IEC 61131-3 standard lend themselves very well to the challenge.

Client/Server Terminology for Modbus TCP

Client/Server terminology for modbus TCP

A Simple Explanation of Client/Server Topology in Regards to the Modbus Protocol

Solid-State Drives in Embedded Systems

Solid-state drives in embedded systems

The benefits of using flash drives in embedded applications outweigh the disadvantages. In addition, there are several ways that a user can mitigate the problems associated with these drives.

Industrial PCs: Addressing the Top Five Challenges on the Factory Floor

Industrial PCs: Addressing the top five challenges on the factory floor

With the gaining popularity of PC-based control systems, plant engineers are turning to industrial PCs (IPCs) for control, HMI and data collection applications.

Design and manufacturing

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The Virtual Company

The Virtual Company: Keys to a successful brand labeling partnership

If a company wants to expand into a new market or quickly respond to emerging trends but does not have the necessary resources, a “brand label” strategy can be a viable alternative.

Signal conditioning and sensors

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Designing with Thermocouples: Get the Most from Your Measurements

Designing with thermocouples: Get the most from your measurements

More than 60 percent of all industrial temperature measurement applications in the U.S. use thermocouples. Despite their widespread use, there are many misconceptions about thermocouples.

Safety technology

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Ten advantages to using intrinsic safety in hazardous locations

Ten advantages to using intrinsic safety in hazardous locations

This paper lists ten reasons (in no particular order) to considering using intrinsic safety when feasible.

The secret to streamlining your HazLoc applications

The secret to streamlining your HazLoc applications

Relays that are triple-rated for hazardous locations (ATEX, IECEx, and Class I, Division 2) can cover thousands of HazLoc applications in the U.S. and around the globe.

SafetyBridge

Building a bridge to safety

This paper examines the benefits and shortfalls of both safety PLCs and configurable safety relays. It also examines a new way of handling safety in industrial automation, “SafetyBridge” technology.

Say NO to safety reliability calculations

Say 'NO' to safety reliability calculations

This paper will give readers a simple design strategy in regard to the new European Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC). It will introduce readers to a new safety motor starter pre-certified to meet the new safety standards.

Industrial networking

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Best practices to secure cellular modems in any industrial application

Best practices to secure cellular modems in any industrial application

This white paper explains some measures you can take to prevent the possible risks associated with cellular modems in an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) environment.

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

Speaking a common language: Getting your devices ready for IIoT

Your equipment has a lot to tell you if you have a way to listen. With minimal investment and effort, you can take the first step into the realm of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).

Cybersecurity graphic

Cybersecurity: Going Beyond Protection to Boost Resiliency

Managing cyber-threats is the new norm. The challenge of protecting sensitive data and cyber-assets becomes even more daunting as tens of billions of devices are connected globally, creating the Internet of Things (IoT). Cyber-threats take on an even greater significance when the target is critical infrastructure such as the electrical grid, a transportation system, or a water/wastewater utility.

Maintaining Data Integrity from Creation to Collection to Consumption in an Infrastructure Environment

Maintaining Data Integrity from Creation to Collection to Consumption in an Infrastructure Environment

Data utilization has escalated many times in modern infrastructure due to the need for information. This data is required for improving process efficiency, security, and decision-making. As the amount of data grows, the responsibility to maintain the integrity of that data grows exponentially.

Cybersecurity in the Global Hydrocarbon Process Industry

Cybersecurity in the Global Hydrocarbon Process Industry

In today’s connected world, the global hydrocarbon process industry is controlled and monitored electronically and digitally. This makes it susceptible to numerous risks, including a disruption anywhere along
the communication path. 

The Business Case for Cybersecurity

The Business Case for Cybersecurity

This paper will emphasize the necessity of a business case for cybersecurity, as defined in ISA-62443-2-1, that justifies the commitment of resources needed to manage cyber risks for a water or wastewater utility. Additionally, it will provide an overview of the NIST Framework.

Four-Pair Solution for the Future

Four-Pair Solution for the Future

Today, Industrial Ethernet is being very successfully used in the automation environment to establish communication between devices. New four-pair Profinet cables can address more demanding plant and system concepts and provide a technology that is fit for the future.

Five Steps to a More Secure Control System

Five Steps to a More Secure Control System

Achieving a completely secure control system is a very difficult, if not impossible task, but there are some simple steps you can take immediately to make your network more secure.

Cable into the Future: Industrial Ethernet with 10 Gbps

Cable into the Future: Industrial Ethernet with 10 Gbps

Today's machines and plants generally communicate using Ethernet with 100 megabits per second (Mbps).

Energy efficiency and sustainability

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Technical brief on monitoring

Maximizing monitoring: Three key ways to improve profitability

This technical brief will introduce the three ways monitoring can help achieve savings. Through practical application of monitoring, savings as a result of reliability, accountability, and efficiency are within reach.

Improving Utility Scale PV Plant Operational Reliability via Effective Monitoring

Improving Utility Scale PV Plant Operational Reliability via Effective Monitoring

As the number of utility scale PV plants continues to grow, increased emphasis is being placed on improving array operational reliability.

The Value of Intelligent PV String Monitoring

The Value of Intelligent PV String Monitoring

With the right monitoring system, operator of a large-scale photovoltaic system can detect even minor efficiency decreases within the PV plant and take the necessary action to resolve these problems quickly – before a significant revenue loss occurs.

Reducing energy costs with energy-monitoring devices

Reducing energy costs with energy-monitoring devices

This paper illustrates how to cut electric utility bills by monitoring energy usage. Even small amounts of excessive current consumption can add up to unnecessarily large utility bills.

Deploying intelligent power supplies to save energy

Deploying intelligent power supplies to save energy

The proliferation of 24 V DC control requirements is all around us. There is more demand for larger DC control, and power supplies are increasing in size.

Industrial PCs and DC UPSs: Save energy and increase efficiency

Industrial PCs and DC UPSs: Save energy and increase efficiency

A low power consumption 24 V DC-powered industrial PC, when combined with DC UPS, can greatly reduce a control system's energy consumption, while also increasing the system's overall efficiency.

Sustainable design for industrial machines

Sustainable design for industrial machines

During the earliest stages of machine design, the builder must consider the machine's entire lifecycle. Low-voltage, DC-based controls can reduce the lifetime costs of a machine, while at the same time improve its efficiency, reliability and safety.

Power quality and surge protection

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Lightning strike in an oil field

The Use of Surge Protective Devices in Protecting Digital Oilfield Assets

This paper examines the three levels of connectivity for the digital oilfield (DOF)): wireless networks, satellite technology, and Ethernet technology. For each of these levels of connectivity, the paper will discuss: various operational attributes for that level of connectivity; discuss the protection methods used to mitigate the effect of lightning strikes (destruction of equipment) for that level of connectivity; and the use of proper placement of surge protective devices (SPDs) within the framework of the oilfield assets to minimize the downtime of those assets.

Improving Wind Turbine Operations and Maintenance with the Real-Time Detection and Analysis of Lightning Strikes Using the Lightning Monitoring System

Improving Wind Turbine Operations and Maintenance with the Real-Time Detection and Analysis of Lightning Strikes Using the Lightning Monitoring System

With the growing number of wind turbines located in remote areas and in offshore locations, wind turbine operators need to optimize maintenance intervals more than ever. As an element of turbine condition monitoring, lightning monitoring can be used as one tool to improve the economic rate of return of wind turbine installations by increasing availability and optimizing maintenance intervals. 

Redundant Power Supply Concepts

Redundant Power Supply Concepts

To improve machine uptime, many engieners are implementing redundant power supply concepts combined with redundancy modules.

Keeping Your DC Power Healthy with an Intelligent UPS

Keeping Your DC Power Healthy with an Intelligent UPS

With the introduction of the Smart Grid, substations are now an integral part of the distributed energy landscape. The new technologies behind the substations must have a reliable power source for monitoring and maintaining these intelligent systems.

DC/DC Converters Supply Rated Voltages of 12, 24, and 48 V DC Even in Extreme Environments

DC/DC Converters Supply Rated Voltages of 12, 24, and 48 V DC Even in Extreme Environments

DC/DC converters can compensate voltage drops in long cables, and they icnrease availability by decoupling circuits or establishing separtzate input circuits.

Best practices for Class I, Div. 2 installation

Best practices for Class I, Div. 2 installation

Selecting the proper battery for an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system can be a complicated process in any application. When the system also requires Class I, Division 2 (CID2) Groups A, B, C, and D approval for use in a hazardous location, the designer has to consider an additional level of safety requirements.

Low-Voltage Power Design: Control Panel Battery Backup

Low-Voltage Power Design: Control Panel Battery Backup

When a control system requires battery backup, several factors drive the design for the UPS section. Depending on those requirements, the designer can determine whether an AC or DC UPS system is better for the system.

Control Panel UPS: Battery Selection Considerations

Control Panel UPS: Battery Selection Considerations

When a control system requires battery backup, several factors drive the selection for the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) battery. Designers must understand the temperature range for the application, voltage, current, and back-up time requirements for the load. These requirements will determine the best type of technology and battery size for the job.

Best practices for 24 V DC-UPS installation

Best practices for 24 V DC-UPS installation

Selecting the proper battery for an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system can be a complicated process in any application. When the system also requires Class I, Division 2 (CID2) Groups A, B, C, and D approval for use in a hazardous location, the designer has to consider an additional level of safety requirements.

Technologies for Protecting Critical Electrical and Control Systems on Movable Structures

Technologies for Protecting Critical Electrical and Control Systems on Movable Structures

This paper will examine the different technologies that can be used to protect movable structures, such as bridges, against surges and transients, and how these technologies can be applied to provide a holistic approach in protecting critical electrical and control systems on movable structures.

Secure Control Systems Power for Today's Remote Oil and Gas Production Facilities in the Digital Oil Field (DOF)

Secure Control Systems Power for Today's Remote Oil and Gas Production Facilities in the Digital Oil Field (DOF)

The purpose of this paper is to provide engineers and designers of remote pad site operations with the key criteria for a safe, stable and continuous power supply for their automation, instrumentation, control, monitoring and communication systems.

Fiber-to-the-Antenna: Benefits and Protection Requirements

Fiber-to-the-Antenna: Benefits and Protection Requirements

This paper will review the changes in cell tower architecture being implemented to meet fourth generation network operating performance criteria and examine the steps that need to be taken to protect cell tower components from lightning and other surge and transient effects.

A Cost-Effective Method of Controlling Lightning Effects in Wayside Bungalows that Incorporate PTC Electronics

A Cost-Effective Method of Controlling Lightning Effects in Wayside Bungalows that Incorporate PTC Electronics

This paper reviews the role of positive train control (PTC) for improved communications and electronic systems, including lightning protection. It also compares and contrasts the construction and operation of the new BE-AR surge protective devices with legacy AAR devices.

The Use of Surge Protective Devices in Mitigating the Effects of Lightning on the Natural Gas Pipeline Infrastructure

The Use of Surge Protective Devices in Mitigating the Effects of Lightning on the Natural Gas Pipeline Infrastructure

This paper will review the use and implementation of surge protective devices (SPDs) in mitigating and controlling the effects of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to lightning strikes on the natural gas pipeline infrastructure.

The use of surge protective devices in mitigating the effects of lightning strikes in offshore oil applications

The use of surge protective devices in mitigating the effects of lightning strikes in offshore oil applications

Recognizing the prevalence of lightning strikes in the Gulf of Mexico region, several system specifications and practices written for lightning mitigation have been applied and implemented in offshore applications over the last decade.

Introduction to Lightning Protection of Wind Turbine Electrical Systems and Equipment

Introduction to Lightning Protection of Wind Turbine Electrical Systems and Equipment

This paper provides the basics of how the IEC and IEEE methodologies quantify the threat. It also provides an overview of the four main technologies used in surge protection devices (SPDs) and the standards and tests applicable to them.

Surge Protection Technology Used in Power over Ethernet (PoE) Protection

Surge Protection Technology Used in Power over Ethernet (PoE) Protection

Applications using Power over Ethernet (PoE) and PoE+ in open-air environments are subjected to large surge currents, and protection must be installed to prevent damage.

The Use of Surge Protection Devices in IEEE 802.3at (PoE+) Applications

The Use of Surge Protection Devices in IEEE 802.3at (PoE+) Applications

The ratification of IEEE Standard 802.3at, also known as Power over Ethernet+ (PoE+), increases the power available to Ethernet ports.

Why surge protection is necessary (PDF 0,07 MB)

Why surge protection is necessary

Surges are a natural result of any electrical activity. Today's sensitive electronics equipment is very vulnerable to damage from surges including lighting and other internal and external surges.

Maximize Your Uptime: Reducing Risk of Power Supply Failure (PDF 0,14 MB)

Maximize Your Uptime: Reducing Risk of Power Supply Failure

Single- and three-phase power systems efficiently transmit power. They also efficiently transmit damaging electrical noise and surges created by typical industrial processes.

Industrial wireless technology

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Wireless for Closed-Loop Applications

Wireless for Closed-Loop Applications

Wireless is becoming more popular in many industrial application, including closed-loop control.

Saving Energy with an Automated Third Rail Heater System

Saving Energy with an Automated Third Rail Heater System

A collaborative project saves between $3 and $4 million in energy costs per year.  Document is property of the New York City Transit Authority. Posted with permission.

Three things to consider when planning an industrial wireless network

Three things to consider when planning an industrial wireless network

During the past decade users have become more comfortable with industrial wireless, but there are still a few items to consider before installation.

Trusted Wireless 2.0 - Wireless Technologies in Industrial Automation

Trusted Wireless 2.0 - Wireless Technologies in Industrial Automation

This white paper gives an overview of Trusted Wireless 2.0, a wireless technology developed especially for industrial use. This technology is based on the requirements of industrial infrastructure applications. It closes the gap between specific sensor networks such as WirelessHART and the high-speed technology WLAN.

So Many Wireless Technologies ...Which Is the Right One for My Application?

So Many Wireless Technologies ...Which Is the Right One for My Application?

This paper provides an overview of the various license-free, spread-spectrum technologies and their appropriate use for industrial applications.

Identifying the best components for your wireless network

Identifying the best components for your wireless network

This paper introduces basic terminology used to describe wireless systems and their accessories. It also covers the basic steps for installing a typical network, from designing a concept to the final system check.

Wireless Technologies for Hydroelectric Facilities

Wireless Technologies for Hydroelectric Facilities

Wireless systems are no longer the technology of the future; it is the technology of the here and now. More power generation and T&D companies are embracing this form of communications because of obvious advantages in cost, time and labor savings.

Selecting the Right Antenna

Selecting the Right Antenna

Antenna selection can be one of the most confusing parts of designing a wireless system. This paper explores antenna theory and recommends practical rules of thumb to use when recommending and installing antennas.

Connection technology

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Making wiring easier - Push-in terminal blocks for modular machine designs

Making wiring easier - Push-in terminal blocks for modular machine designs

Modular machine design is on the rise. Modern terminal blocks with push-in technology make systems more economical and flexible.

Hybrid connectors

Hybrid connectors: More than the sum of their parts

With more complex regulations and control tasks comes greater cabling complexity and, thus, a greater impact on the availability of the entire system. Hybrid connectors – for transmitting signals, data, and power over a single cable – offer a way out of this dilemma.

Tinning wires

The problems with tinning wires

Tinning wires could be the reason for loose connections in screw terminal blocks. While tinning does have benefits, there are better alternatives that could save you the headache of loose terminations.

Direct connection adaptivity

Direct connection adaptivity

PCBs and connection components are the central nervous system of electronics and as such, have a large impact on the performance and flexibility of electrical devices. SKEDD direct connection technology is the next innovation in PCB connection technology. 

Raspberry Pi enclosure

A Home for the Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is well known to the hobby community as a fun and useful piece of technology. However, the microcomputer requires a functional and safe enclosure with integrated connection technology in order to be used effectively in professional applications.

Well rounded: Fiber-Optic M12 Data Connectors

Well rounded: Fiber-Optic M12 Data Connectors

New M12 Optic connectors meet the requirements of complex automation processes. Based on fiber optics, the M12 Optic combines high data transmission rates with reliable protection against mechanical, electromagnetic, and environmental interference.

Power Wiring, Made Easy

Power Wiring, Made Easy

New high-current terminals  allow for easy, fast, and safe connections with large cable cross-sections.

Saving space for control cabinet switching

Saving space for control cabinet switching

Switching connectors and honeycomb terminals offer an innovative color guidance system where the connection point colors can be freely assigned.

Power PCB Terminal Blocks – Easier Wiring

Device manufacturers know many methods for transmitting current to the PCB. PCB terminals with fast connection technology connect the cable quickly, securely, and without the need for any tools.

PCB Terminal Blocks: Common Defects and How to Identify Them

PCB Terminal Blocks: Common Defects and How to Identify Them

A design engineer who knows how to identify a high-quality PCB terminal block can ultimately prevent dangerous electrical and mechanical faults in a system.

Electronic Housings: Considerations, Standards and Practices for Industrial Applications

Electronic Housings: Considerations, Standards and Practices for Industrial Applications

Circuit housings used in industrial and utility applications have requirements often not needed in the commercial or consumerelectronics industries.

Customized Electronics Housings - Intelligently Packaged Instead of Just Hidden Away

Customized Electronics Housings - Intelligently Packaged Instead of Just 'Hidden Away'

With the increasing globalization of markets, producers of industrial equipment face the pressures of shorter product cycles and falling product prices.

Top 10 concerns for signal connections

Top 10 concerns for signal connections

As the complexity of PCB design increases, users need to look at a wide factors when choosing signal connections. By looking at each of these factors, the user can better choose the connection to meet the specific needs of the application.

UL 508 A Short Circuit Current Ratings

UL 508 A Short Circuit Current Ratings

While it can be difficult to determine the proper short circuit current ratings (SCCR), this application guide breaks the process down into systematic steps.

Interface technology and switching devices

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Compact monitoring relays with innovative connection technology

Compact monitoring relays with innovative connection technology

Monitoring electrical parameters is an important way to prevent downtime and schedule predictive maintenance, but until recently, many monitoring relays were too complex and expensive for some applications. This white paper discusses how new technology can measure electrical parameters such as current and voltage as well as phase sequence, failure, and asymmetry in a reliable manner.

Push-in Relays: Faster Connections

Push-in Relays: Faster Connections

PLC relays with push-in termination technology can reduce the overall installation costs for a control application.

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