Functional specification for a typical onshore wellhead control and monitoring system
This document specifies the requirements for a control and monitoring system for an onshore low-pressure, lower-temperature oil and gas wellhead.
What makes a soft PLC?
This Technical Brief provides an introduction to “soft” control systems and real-time computing with an emphasis on PC-based control systems.
WIN XP -- Don't Get Left Behind
Support for Windows XP will expire in April 2014, so now is the time to plan ahead.
Streamlining Control Program Implementation and Modification Using the IEC 61131-3 Programming Model
Programming a control system represents a major portion of the non-recurring engineering costs for a new system. Modular programming structures and components exist in most commonly available control system configuration and programming packages. Those provided by the IEC 61131-3 standard lend themselves very well to the challenge.
Client/Server Terminology for Modbus TCP
A Simple Explanation of Client/Server Topology in Regards to the Modbus Protocol
Solid-State Drives in Embedded Systems
The benefits of using flash drives in embedded applications outweigh the disadvantages. In addition, there are several ways that a user can mitigate the problems associated with these drives.
Industrial PCs: Addressing the Top Five Challenges on the Factory Floor
With the gaining popularity of PC-based control systems, plant engineers are turning to industrial PCs (IPCs) for control, HMI and data collection applications.
The Virtual Company: Keys to a Successful Brand Labeling Partnership
If a company wants to expand into a new market or quickly respond to emerging trends but does not have the necessary resources, a “brand label” strategy can be a viable alternative.
Designing with Thermocouples: Get the Most from Your Measurements
More than 60 percent of all industrial temperature measurement applications in the U.S. use thermocouples. Despite their widespread use, there are many misconceptions about thermocouples.
Building a bridge to safety
This paper examines the benefits and shortfalls of both safety PLCs and configurable safety relays. It also examines a new way of handling safety in industrial automation, “SafetyBridge” technology.
Functional Safety in Wind Turbine Systems
Wind turbine systems qualify as machines under the European Union (EU) machinery directive. Therefore, they must meet the appropriate functional safety specifications.
Machine Safety Design: Safety Relays Versus a Single Safety Controller
There comes a point in machine safety design when the designer needs to decide if it makes more sense to use multiple safety relays or to upgrade to a safety controller.
Say 'NO' to safety reliability calculations
This paper will give readers a simple design strategy in regard to the new European Machinery Directive (2006/42/EC). It will introduce readers to a new safety motor starter pre-certified to meet the new safety standards.
M12 versus RJ45 Ethernet connection systems
When it comes to survivability in a hostile plant environment, few people would argue against the superiority of the M12 connector system over the traditional RJ45 connector and socket, a combination originally designed to do no more than hook up a telephone instrument. Industrial Ethernet cabling requires connection solutions that are sturdy and reliable.
Cybersecurity for Critical Control Systems in the Power Industry
With the advent of Stuxnet, cybersecurity attacks on control and SCADA systems have become a reality. The threat of cybersecurity attacks on our nation’s critical control systems infrastructure, which includes our power generation facilities, presents yet another challenge to utility directors and staff.
Securing Critical Control Systems in the Water Industry -- Where Do I Start?
This paper will review existing and emerging threats to critical infrastructure and the potential impact of cyber events on water systems. It will provide an overview of industry standards, guidelines and recommendations and other available resources to aid in the development of a utility security plan essential for protecting critical assets.
Four-Pair Solution for the Future
Today, Industrial Ethernet is being very successfully used in the automation environment to establish communication between devices. New four-pair Profinet cables can address more demanding plant and system concepts and provide a technology that is fit for the future.
Five Steps to a More Secure Control System
Achieving a completely secure control system is a very difficult, if not impossible task, but there are some simple steps you can take immediately to make your network more secure.
Cable into the Future: Industrial Ethernet with 10 Gbps
Today's machines and plants generally communicate using Ethernet with 100 megabits per second (Mbps).
Post-Stuxnet Industrial Security: White paper details how to detect industrial malware on day zero
Preventing the next Stuxnet-like attack on the control world might be impossible, but operators can mitigate the effects and contain worms and viruses through early detection.
Time for action in industrial automation: Support for Windows 2000 set to expire
With support for Windows 2000 ending in July, industrial control engineers need to review the security of their operating systems. A "defense-in-depth" security solution can protect a control system, even if the operating system no longer provides...
The Role Standards Play in Selecting Industrial Ethernet Components
There are several things to consider when designing and installing structured cabling in an industrial production environment. Most importantly, stick to the basics and adhere to the ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-C design and installation standards.
Selecting cabling and connectors for industrial Ethernet applications
There are several important considerations to take into account when deciding on which type of cables and connectors to use for any specific application. This white paper will help you make the proper selections to meet the needs of your application.
Hacking the industrial network
Industrial control networks are highly vulnerable to intelligent remote attacks, as well as non-intelligent viruses. With threats to these networks increasing in complexity and scope, decision makers need to take action before it's too late.
The Value of Intelligent PV String Monitoring
With the right monitoring system, operator of a large-scale photovoltaic system can detect even minor efficiency decreases within the PV plant and take the necessary action to resolve these problems quickly – before a significant revenue loss occurs.
Reducing energy costs with energy-monitoring devices
This paper illustrates how to cut electric utility bills by monitoring energy usage. Even small amounts of excessive current consumption can add up to unnecessarily large utility bills.
Deploying intelligent power supplies to save energy
The proliferation of 24 V DC control requirements is all around us. There is more demand for larger DC control, and power supplies are increasing in size.
Industrial PCs and DC UPSs: Save energy and increase efficiency
A low power consumption 24 V DC-powered industrial PC, when combined with DC UPS, can greatly reduce a control system's energy consumption, while also increasing the system's overall efficiency.
Sustainable design for industrial machines
During the earliest stages of machine design, the builder must consider the machine's entire lifecycle. Low-voltage, DC-based controls can reduce the lifetime costs of a machine, while at the same time improve its efficiency, reliability and safety.
Low-Voltage Power Design: Control Panel Battery Backup
When a control system requires battery backup, several factors drive the design for the UPS section. Depending on those requirements, the designer can determine whether an AC or DC UPS system is better for the system.
Control Panel UPS: Battery Selection Considerations
When a control system requires battery backup, several factors drive the selection for the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) battery. Designers must understand the temperature range for the application, voltage, current, and back-up time requirements for the load. These requirements will determine the best type of technology and battery size for the job.
Best practices for 24 V DC-UPS installation
Selecting the proper battery for an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system can be a complicated process in any application. When the system also requires Class I, Division 2 (CID2) Groups A, B, C, and D approval for use in a hazardous location, the designer has to consider an additional level of safety requirements.
Technologies for Protecting Critical Electrical and Control Systems on Movable Structures
This paper will examine the different technologies that can be used to protect movable structures, such as bridges, against surges and transients, and how these technologies can be applied to provide a holistic approach in protecting critical electrical and control systems on movable structures.
Secure Control Systems Power for Today's Remote Oil and Gas Production Facilities in the Digital Oil Field (DOF)
The purpose of this paper is to provide engineers and designers of remote pad site operations with the key criteria for a safe, stable and continuous power supply for their automation, instrumentation, control, monitoring and communication systems.
Fiber-to-the-Antenna: Benefits and Protection Requirements
This paper will review the changes in cell tower architecture being implemented to meet fourth generation network operating performance criteria and examine the steps that need to be taken to protect cell tower components from lightning and other surge and transient effects.
A Cost-Effective Method of Controlling Lightning Effects in Wayside Bungalows that Incorporate PTC Electronics
This paper reviews the role of positive train control (PTC) for improved communications and electronic systems, including lightning protection. It also compares and contrasts the construction and operation of the new BE-AR surge protective devices with legacy AAR devices.
The Use of Surge Protective Devices in Mitigating the Effects of Lightning on the Natural Gas Pipeline Infrastructure
This paper will review the use and implementation of surge protective devices (SPDs) in mitigating and controlling the effects of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to lightning strikes on the natural gas pipeline infrastructure.
The use of surge protective devices in mitigating the effects of lightning strikes in offshore oil applications
Recognizing the prevalence of lightning strikes in the Gulf of Mexico region, several system specifications and practices written for lightning mitigation have been applied and implemented in offshore applications over the last decade.
Introduction to Lightning Protection of Wind Turbine Electrical Systems and Equipment
This paper provides the basics of how the IEC and IEEE methodologies quantify the threat. It also provides an overview of the four main technologies used in surge protection devices (SPDs) and the standards and tests applicable to them.
UL 1449: Key Changes from 2nd Edition to 3rd Edition
Surge protective devices (SPDs) for industrial applications need to meet very strict standards to prevent downtime and increase reliability. One of the key approvals for SPDs is UL 1449, "Standard for Safety for Surge Protective Devices."
Surge Protection Technology Used in Power over Ethernet (PoE) Protection
Applications using Power over Ethernet (PoE) and PoE+ in open-air environments are subjected to large surge currents, and protection must be installed to prevent damage.
The Use of Surge Protection Devices in IEEE 802.3at (PoE+) Applications
The ratification of IEEE Standard 802.3at, also known as Power over Ethernet+ (PoE+), increases the power available to Ethernet ports.
Why surge protection is necessary
Surges are a natural result of any electrical activity. Today's sensitive electronics equipment is very vulnerable to damage from surges including lighting and other internal and external surges.
Maximize Your Uptime: Reducing Risk of Power Supply Failure
Single- and three-phase power systems efficiently transmit power. They also efficiently transmit damaging electrical noise and surges created by typical industrial processes.
Three things to consider when planning an industrial wireless network
During the past decade users have become more comfortable with industrial wireless, but there are still a few items to consider before installation.
Trusted Wireless 2.0 - Wireless Technologies in Industrial Automation
This white paper gives an overview of Trusted Wireless 2.0, a wireless technology developed especially for industrial use. This technology is based on the requirements of industrial infrastructure applications. It closes the gap between specific sensor networks such as WirelessHART and the high-speed technology WLAN.
So Many Wireless Technologies ...Which Is the Right One for My Application?
This paper provides an overview of the various license-free, spread-spectrum technologies and their appropriate use for industrial applications.
Identifying the best components for your wireless network
This paper introduces basic terminology used to describe wireless systems and their accessories. It also covers the basic steps for installing a typical network, from designing a concept to the final system check.
EtherNet/IP: When to Go Wireless
This paper explores the EtherNet/IP protocol from a technical standpoint and applies it to particular system considerations for a wireless network.
Wireless Technologies for Hydroelectric Facilities
Wireless systems are no longer the technology of the future; it is the technology of the here and now. More power generation and T&D companies are embracing this form of communications because of obvious advantages in cost, time and labor savings.
Selecting the Right Antenna
Antenna selection can be one of the most confusing parts of designing a wireless system. This paper explores antenna theory and recommends practical rules of thumb to use when recommending and installing antennas.
Getting the Most Out of Your WirelessHART® System
WirelessHART makes the HART protocol more usable, flexible and cost-effective, but there are still some complications. Larger networks can be harder to manage, and bottlenecks in the network can create strain on battery powered devices.
This paper will focus on the industrial use of public standard IEEE 802.11 technology while providing a broad comparison of different spread spectrum wireless technologies currently deployed in industrial automation applications.
PCB Terminal Blocks: Common Defects and How to Identify Them
A design engineer who knows how to identify a high-quality PCB terminal block can ultimately prevent dangerous electrical and mechanical faults in a system.
Electronic Housings: Considerations, Standards and Practices for Industrial Applications
Circuit housings used in industrial and utility applications have requirements often not needed in the commercial or consumerelectronics industries.
Customized Electronics Housings - Intelligently Packaged Instead of Just 'Hidden Away'
With the increasing globalization of markets, producers of industrial equipment face the pressures of shorter product cycles and falling product prices.
Easy Wiring: Terminal Blocks with Push-In Technology Save Time, Reduce Fatigue
The newest generation of terminal blocks features push-in technology, which simplifies wiring and reduces installation time. There are several key features to look for when choosing a push-in terminal block.
Top 10 concerns for signal connections
As the complexity of PCB design increases, users need to look at a wide factors when choosing signal connections. By looking at each of these factors, the user can better choose the connection to meet the specific needs of the application.
UL 508 A Short Circuit Current Ratings
While it can be difficult to determine the proper short circuit current ratings (SCCR), this application guide breaks the process down into systematic steps.
Compact monitoring relays with innovative connection technology
Monitoring electrical parameters is an important way to prevent downtime and schedule predictive maintenance, but until recently, many monitoring relays were too complex and expensive for some applications. This white paper discusses how new technology can measure electrical parameters such as current and voltage as well as phase sequence, failure, and asymmetry in a reliable manner.
Push-in Relays: Faster Connections
PLC relays with push-in termination technology can reduce the overall installation costs for a control application.