Charging methods and modes

Discover which types of battery can be used to charge an electric vehicle. AC charging, DC charging or battery swapping – what are the differences? The charging processes are described in detail in standards IEC 61851 and IEC 62196.

4 charging operation methods are described in total. In line with IEC 61851, there are various ways of charging the battery of an electric vehicle. The charging operation method differentiates between a total of three types of AC charging and the fourth charging operation method is for charging with direct current (DC).

AC charging

AC Vehicle Connector  

AC Vehicle Connector

In the case of AC charging, the AC/DC converter is located in the vehicle. This converts the alternating current to direct current, which is required for charging the battery.

With our AC Vehicle Connectors, AC charging is carried out in charging modes 2 and 3 and a charging power of up to 43 kW is enabled.

DC charging

Charging connector with Combined Charging System  

Charging connector with combined charging system

Charging with direct current makes it possible to transmit high levels of power in a short time. In comparison to AC charging, the contacts and conductor cross sections have greater dimensions and can therefore transmit up to 200 A and 850 V DC. In general, this is referred to as fast charging.

When it comes to DC charging, the Combined Charging System – abbreviated to CCS – is recommended by leading automobile manufacturers, as stipulated in the IEC 62196-3 standard. Standard J1772 regulates CCS charging according to type 1 in the American market. For China, the standard according to GB/T 20234.3 with up to 250 A and 750 V DC is taken into account for DC charging.

Battery swapping systems

Battery swapping system  

Battery swapping system

As part of this concept, the flat battery unit is removed from the electric vehicle and replaced by a charged battery. The DC replacement battery concept is particularly suitable for commercial vehicles operated by local and municipal authorities.

The battery units are replaced with the help of fully-automated robots in the space of a few minutes. In this manner, downtimes are kept to a minimum.

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