In DIN 46228, the ferrule is defined as being between 0.5 and 50 mm².
This standard has four parts:
- Part 1: Tubular end-sleeves without plastic sleeve
- Part 2: Crimp-type end-splices, with and without insulation grip
- Part 3: Conductor-embracing end-splices, without insulation grip
- Part 4: Tubular end-sleeves with plastic sleeve
Alongside the geometric dimensions of the sleeve, the material, the coloring according to the cross-section, and the test specifications are all part of the standard. In addition, there is the requirement that the ferrules accommodate Class 2, 5, and 6 conductors. The conductor cross-sections are defined by the electrical resistance values and not, as is the case for the ferrules, by the geometric dimensions. Greater variations in cross-sections are therefore possible. Due to this fact, there is a certain discrepancy between the ferrule and the conductor. However, Phoenix Contact ferrule pliers are largely designed to compensate for this difference in size.
In addition to DIN, there is a French standard for the sleeves: NF C 63-023. With the exception of the coloring for some cross-sections, the NF standard is based on the DIN standard.
UL 486F and the Canadian C22.2 NO. 291-14 are new when it comes to the standardization of ferrules. These harmonized standards are also based on the DIN, but go further into detail on the test methodology and the specific requirements.
In UL 486F, special sleeves such as the TWIN ferrules for two-conductor connection are also defined in a standard for the first time. For certification in accordance with the UL and CSA standards mentioned above, comprehensive testing must be carried out by the relevant organization. Not just the ferrules are tested and certified, but also the entire system consisting of the ferrule pliers and ferrule.